STATEMENT OF NEED
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncological emergency that occurs when massive tumor lysis causes the rapid release of intracellular components into the bloodstream. Electrolyte imbalances characterized by hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia may be severe enough to cause acute renal failure, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and even death. Current advances in cancer therapies can increase the incidence of TLS; therefore, identification of patients at risk for TLS and prophylactic measures to prevent TLS are critically important to preventing morbidity and mortality. This manuscript reviews the pathophysiology of TLS, the identification of patients at risk of TLS and the appropriate prophylactic treatment, the signs and symptoms of TLS, and supportive care measures to optimize outcomes when TLS does occur.
Oncology nurses, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, and other health care professionals involved in the treatment of various tumor types
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